Marriage in the Hindu Religion: Forms

by Akmal


Different dharma texts of Hindu religion like Manu-Smriti and the Vedas, notice 8 unique types of relationships in the Hindu religion. Know More : Marriage registration noida

The various types of Hindu relationships have not been determined in the focal regulation called The Hindu Marriage Act

Be that as it may, these types of relationships are as yet present and characterized in the law as ‘customs’ which has been given a legitimate status under Sec. 3(a) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1956.

Marriage in Hindu religion is a sacred (sacrosanct) and blessed association of 2 people. There are different functions, as indicated by various positions, that are fundamental for a union with become solemnized (official).

A portion of these services and customs are presently classified into the Indian general set of laws as customs.

Nonetheless, for a specific service, practice or a type of union with be a custom according to the law, it ought to have been consistently and persistently noticed for quite a while and it ought not be preposterous or gone against to public strategy.

Types of marriage and issues

The standardizing texts, dharma texts and some Gṛhyasūtras arrange marriage into eight unique structures which are Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa, Paishacha. This request for types of marriage is progressive.

Indeed, even the High Court of India in Koppisetti Sub-bharao versus the Province Of A.P, perceived the presence of 8 types of marriage given by Aryan Hindus.

The eight structures are separated into 2 classes of endorsed and unapproved types of marriage.

Endorsed structures

Brahma, Daiva, Arsha and Prajapatya go under the endorsed types of marriage. These relationships include the trading of gifts, the “endowment of a lady” (kanyādāna).

Brahmins, as per the dharma texts, have the obligation to acknowledge gifts.

Hence, the initial four marriage types are for the most part articulated legitimate for Brahmins.


‘Brahma’ is one of the most polished types of marriage in India and has the most preeminent situation out of the relative multitude of eight types of marriage.

Manu-Smriti has likewise laid extraordinary significance on this type of marriage.


Daiva-vivāha signifies ‘marriage connected with the ritual of the divine beings’.

Here of marriage, dissimilar to Brahma, the dad offers his girl to a cleric as a Dakshina (conciliatory expense) for directing in the penance led by the dad of the lady of the hour.


The third type of supported marriage, that is Arsha Marriage, recommends marriage with Rishi or sages.

The dad of the lady doesn’t need to give anything to the husband.

In the Arsha, the dad of the spouse is the person who gives 2 cows or bulls to the dad of the lady.


Prajapatya type of marriage is like Brahma type of marriage besides there is no exchanging or Kanyadan in Prajapatya and the dad of the lady looks for the husband to be.

In light of these distinctions, Prajapatya is sub-par compared to Brahma.

Unapproved structures

Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa and Paisacha go under the unapproved types of marriage.

As per Rajbir Singh Dalal versus Chaudhari Devi Lal College, 2008, the property of a childless lady wedded in one of the unapproved structures goes to her family as opposed to her significant other.


This is one of the most censured types of marriage. Here, the dad offers her girl after the spouse has given all the abundance that he would be able, to the dad of the lady of the hour and the lady of the hour herself.

The Ramayana specifies that measure of cost was given to the watchman of Kaikeyi for her marriage with Ruler Dasaratha.

This is fundamentally a business exchange where the lady is bought.


This is a remarkable type of marriage and is not the same as different types of marriage.  This shared arrangement emerges from unadulterated desire. The endorsement of guardians doesn’t assume a part.

The idea of common assent for marriage was pervasive in the old Hindu framework, nonetheless, the solemnization of marriage emerging from the shared assent was extremely low. This was on the grounds that:

  1. This prompted the Hindu culture moving to youngster marriage.
  2. Probability of between standing connection turned out to be high.
  3. This type of marriage was not as per Hindu societies and

Rehearses as there was no parental assent.


Rakshasa type of marriage is performed by stealing the lady  and severely killing her family members.

This type of marriage was drilled by Kshtraiyas or military classes.

“Rakshasa” marriage looks like a right of a victor over the individual held hostage in war.


This is set as the last type of marriage since this is the absolute most terrible type of marriage out of the 8 relationships.

  • In this, a man tempts ladies and enters in a sexual demonstration when the young lady is either resting, inebriated or intellectually scattered for the most part in the evening.
  • The young lady and her folks out of disgrace of such action need to consent to the marriage with the man. Paishacha implies trolls who should act covertly around evening time.


People from various socio-economic groups came up with the eight types of marriage that are advised in dharma scriptures.

  • Brahmins were mostly responsible for drilling the supported sorts of partnerships.
  • Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Shudra were typically the ones that drilled the illegal buildings.


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